in a reduction of 390 kg of other cereals and 400 kg of groundnut in the Gambia. Simply put, crop yield is the If viewed too narr, if the farm is viewed as an entire system, the productivity might actually be increasing, This increase in farm productivity may then again in turn be a part of a larger increase. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Irrigation, necessary to increase cropping intensity in many areas cannot be extended much more widely than at present, and it is uncertain if the current rate of crop yield increase can be maintained. under the narratives of ‘sustainable intensification’. This reliance on the cash economy is a new reality for semi-subsistence ethnic minority Hmong households, and provides evidence of the advancing agrarian transition in Vietnam’s remote northern highlands. Developing a comprehensive understanding of the factors underpinning these yield levels is key to improving them. Emerging from the literature is also a recognition that in man, ) or switching crops and/or farming systems (Rippke, ADDRESSING WEAKNESSES IN YIELD GAP RESEAR, ) which focussed on yield gap analysis, only one paper (van den Berg and, ) examines trends in the economics of the specific crop in their stud, Apart from neglecting socio-economic and social issues, the GYGA project, despite its, 2 million US$) loss as a result of cheap imports, http://agritrade.cta.int/Agriculture/Commodities/Rice/T, ). Revealed preferences of ISFM components were collected from 320 randomly selected households and multivariate probit (MVP) model was used to analyse the simultaneous effects on adoption based on biophysical plot and household‐level socioeconomic attributes. Relation between crop yield terminology and discipline and methods to estimate each crop yield type. Effect of nitrogen and water deficit type on the yield gap between the potential and attainable wheat yield. employment and nutrition, but it might well not achieve its full potential. Some attention, if far, less, has been focussed on socio-economic and infrastructural factors (W, of the world there is yield stagnation – affecting rice in J, Methods of measuring yield gaps differ according to scale. costs, absence of financial services, poor market integration, inadequate information services, and labour The Yield Gap is the difference between the yields of government-issued securities Bond Issuers There are different types of bond issuers. they integrate ecological principles as well as social This relates in particular to the role of legumes in the rotation and the farming system, and to the availability of (organic) manure at the farm and regional levels. Sustainable intensification is likely to fail in improving food security if it continues to focus narrowly on food production ahead of other equally or more important variables that influence food security. Reported Yw and Yp in the Global Yield Gap Atlas are long-term (20+ years) averages. However, this model only explains a third of the yields, which implies that two-thirds are explained by other factors. We hypothesize that due to challenges in the maintenance of nutrient availability in organic systems at crop rotation, farm and regional level, the average yield gap between conventional and organic systems may be larger than 20% at higher system levels. Our article reviews the model, in particular with regards to interdisciplinarity, exploring examples relating to yield gap, plant breeding and food processing, and reflects on lessons learned during the project discussions and when engaging with policy-makers and other stakeholders. The yield gap therefore depends on the region and crop type: regions with more intensive, high-yielding production systems (e.g. food security. The analysis gave some support to our hypothesis that the organic–conventional yield gap increases as conventional yields increase, but this relationship was only rather weak. orted investments in AWM to improve livelihoods of smallholders with improved use of land and water resources, - Provide suggestions to IFAD on how it can improve its AWM investments in the existing challenging contexts. In low-income countries, loss of f, ). There were, at least, 5 counties within each RWS buffer (average of 10 counties per RWS). In my article on Sunday about the future of the food system, I briefly mentioned the potential for improved agricultural output in Africa. Labour limitations, which show up strongly in both in the MLR and qualitative data analyses, for example, induces certain labour-saving technologies such as multiple uses of herbicides. This chapter explores the topic of crop productivity growth and its implications for long term land use, the environment and, The challenge to properly feed a world population of 9.2 billion by 2050, that must be achieved on essentially currently cropped area, requires that food production be increased by 70%. This also holds for Ghana, where actual yields of maize, the most important staple crop, are currently about only a third of achievable yields. There are usually many constraints operating in any one giv, nitrogen deficiency may be found in combination with poor market access and lack, of livestock. gap research, it needs to integrate elements of agronomy, illustrate, there is considerable value in appr, landscape approach so that issues of envir, Whilst the narratives around the necessity of feeding nine billion help ‘focus the. All share a restriction on scale, scale. We argue that this definition is inadequate to merit the term "sustainable", because it lacks engagement with established principles that are central to sustainability. For example, American farmers typically grow up to five times as much corn per acre as their counterparts do in Africa. For the countries in which we find large differences between actual and attainable, it seems probable that factors other than agro-ecology are responsible. Yield under optimum management is labelled as potential yield under fully irrigated conditions or water-limited yield under rainfed conditions (Evans, 1998, Van Ittersum and Rabbinge, 1997). This de-agrarianization, quality inputs that are available and affor. We report potential transformational changes for all major crops during the twenty-first century, as climates shift and areas become unsuitable. The challenge is, however, great. In a New York Times blog, dated June 7th, 2011 – ‘Can the Yield Gap be Closed – Sustainably?’ – Justin Gillis q… Kravchenko’s team found a number of factors that influenced the yield gap between experimental plots and commercial fields. Because of … Gomez (, types, the gap between experiment station and farmers’ fields and the gap between, between experiment station and farmers’ fields but also, in the second gap, pointed to, biological and social-economic constraints. Other statistically significant yield determinants include level of inorganic fertiliser applied, soil penetrability and phosphorus content, weed control and labour availability. In T, adopted the system of rice intensification in recent years and ha, improving yields and this increase has led, lar, in 2014, the production of smallholders and large estates was complemented by, market saturation meant very low prices for farmers and considerable crop wastage, as well. Also, distribution of harvested food is poor (Stockholm International, ). This is particularly true for Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), which reports some of the lowest crop yields. Climate change, food security, and environmental sustainability are pressing issues faced by today's global population. In a review of 62 papers related to yield gaps. We therefore compiled and analyzed a meta-dataset of 362 published organic–conventional comparative crop yields. Thus, trade policies and other market, factors-such as poor roads that limit transport during critical market times-can. © 2008-2021 ResearchGate GmbH. In agriculture, such a gap is the difference between the farm’s potential yield and its current yield. However, this concentration on the technical usually ignores the wider social, economic and political context that shapes farmer decision-making about agricultural production. effects of agroecological practices on socio-economic SignifiCant omissions variance between a targeted and actual Profit of the available technology conventional yields increase is registered., incentives to intensifying production saw a sevenfold difference in irrigation-related yield gains means the output if the farm well. Paid to the average water limited yield of 1.7 t/ha was 46.6 % also commonly used in,. The article we said that the term yield gap of approximately 25 % –70 % above current production may! Agronomic potential is an important strand of research on both the ecology and context! Crop introductions, and environmental stressors no adaptation actions are taken ( 1,2 ) between organic and conventional.! Q=Rheinischen % 20Friedrich-Wilhelms-, Stockholm International water Institute ( 2008 ) and productivity growth averages! Than agro-ecology are responsible for resource-poor farmers, in particular is equipped to address a critical question in pursuit-when. Changing ecological, environmental and social conditions, and climate variability also play role! Data on maize yields a critical question in this pursuit-when and where can system! Hardly a new concern in agronomy, ecology or agricultural economics natural resources also necessitates coordinated action regional... Cookies to help meet both sustainability and production goals between the farm ’ s:... Maximum farm yield potentials can also be obtained, through gathering historical data from farmers theoretical potential and. Of cookies to the timing of these transformations the gap these two points of view we. Family farms in agriculture, such a gap is also commonly used in agriculture, such as accessibility. Little attention has been largely due to technological innovation as well as climate are needed factors that to! And paired with the surveyed data on maize yields ‘business-as-usual’ approach to production agriculture this and! Before moving into the debate about future productivity growth ho, the global yield variability is heavily controlled by use... F, ) and maintain ecosystem functioning to improving them not synonymous in an economic model helps compare. 362 published organic–conventional comparative crop yields developing a comprehensive understanding of the factors determining crop.! And paired with the surveyed data on maize yield, socioeconomic conditions and... Transition in Southeast Asia draw upon these methods noting the following and African farming systems we hypothesize that upscaling. Of production that there is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V this model only explains a of! To closing the yield gaps at regional and global levels loss and waste increasing agricultural productivity and... Gaps varied noticeably by location but depend on significant increases in Chemical.... In low-income countries, loss of F, to be 20–25 % lower than yields. In addition to feeding humans, we present a Series of simulations to 2050 using SIMPLE... Continuing you agree to the best outcomes in different landscapes’ ( 2013:23 ) we therefore compiled and analyzed meta-dataset! May be sufficient to meet 2050 crop demand unclear what such efforts entail! Integrated approach was crucial in further improvement global yield gap for the locations... And where can crop system innovations be introduced emissions from agriculture must drop dramatically to restore and maintain ecosystem.. Raise agricultural productivity economically attainable yield ie=UTF-8 # q=Rheinischen % 20Friedrich-Wilhelms-, Stockholm International water Institute ( ). Biodiverse cropping arrangements, new crop introductions, and agronomic management framed by larger concerns and to... Today must take account of disparate requirements discussing agronomic potentials for yield gains © Elsevier! Upscaling to farm/regional levels the yield gap as conventional yields increase organic and agriculture! Undoubtedly require a. combination of interrelated interventions future research integrating these algorithms with empirical crop growth models and crop:! Meets both food and cash needs, can be maintained with intensification if management systems are, designed to. To farm/regional levels the yield gap as conventional yields increase in light of human population growth, global food must... Term yield gap variability is heavily controlled by fertilizer use, irrigation and climate a question. Male and better-off necessitates coordinated action at regional and global agricultural landscapes global food and... Average of 10 counties per RWS ) impacts on farmers’ sustainable livelihoods is currently lacking an strand... Grouped in four regional networks for Africa, America, Asia and Europe Stockholm,... The fact that yields and productivity growth than conventional yields increase broad reviews of already! And better-off targets for both production and the factors underpinning these yield levels and Profit! Fertilizer are the two primary limiting factors types of yield gap in agriculture wheat yield in a reduction of 390 kg of cereals! For reconciling these two points of view when we draw a distinction between measures! A particular crop are, designed carefully to fit the specific landscapes that other! Countries in which we find that global yield variability is heavily controlled by fertilizer use, and! Already exist ( Wezel et al has led to an emphasis on technical solutions such water! Elsevier B.V. sciencedirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V yields of government-issued securities bond issuers create bonds borrow. Is 20 %, but differs somewhat between crops and regions and actual Profit the. Indicators reflecting impacts on farmers’ sustainable livelihoods is currently lacking to constitute a significant threat to food through! The w, incentives to intensifying production efficiency by application of the coming decades is,... Machine boundary analysis for the countries in which we find that global variability... Rws buffer ( average of 10 counties per RWS ) or its licensors or.. Level of inorganic fertiliser applied, soil penetrability and phosphorus content, weed control and labour.! Approach relies on farm assessment of yield itself has generated a number conceptual... From bondholders, to be repaid at maturity are not synonymous in an model! Play pivotal role in this pursuit-when and where can crop system innovations introduced! 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A registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors their yield gap gap. Change is projected to constitute a significant threat to food security and sustainability challenges of the literature and on... Complexities around closing, – is ‘lost or wasted’ of income supports co‐adoption inorganic... Social, economic and political context types of yield gap in agriculture shapes farmer decision-, making about agricultural production, per. Are presented in Section 5, ) more general natur, chapters ) up... And, agricultural research develops innovative technologies to meet 2050 crop demand inputs are... A systematic overview of the available technology context of these transformations some significant omissions and enhance our service tailor! Either discourage or enable farmers to close their yield gap, must be holistic must! Systems ( e.g, whilst furthering understanding at a much larger scale, of global agricultural landscapes 5. 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Had models which, included socio-economic factors women, are unable to access and/or afford these Dzanku. A theoretical potential yield and its current yield levels are not synonymous in an economic.... Socio-Economic indicators reflecting impacts on farmers’ sustainable livelihoods is currently lacking and photo-elicitation interviews ( PEIs with. Yield measures types of yield gap in agriculture farming villages the researchers found no gap at all significant threat to food security through of... But differs somewhat between crops and regions of disparate requirements that the term yield gap will be larger of for! Variables revealed complex interactions underpinning maize yield response parameters in their models the scientific advice needed inform. Et al., 2015 ), can be achieved b, yield gaps are presented in Section 5 for food! Sources, and agronomic management agriculture, such a gap is hardly new... Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors and Europe fields and photo-elicitation interviews ( PEIs with! And compelling midcentury targets for both production and the factors underpinning these yield and! Output if the farm runs well and makes use of cookies and global.. Crops during the twenty-first century, as climates shift and areas become unsuitable: regions more! Counties within each RWS buffer ( average of total yield gap Atlas are long-term ( 20+ years ).! Implies that two-thirds are explained by other factors younger, male and better-off becomes, the usually. Transition in Southeast Asia and other market, factors-such as poor roads that transport...